Cannabis Legalization & Criminalization Code Sections

 

§ 4.1-600. Definitions.

As used in this subtitle, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Advertisement" or "advertising" means any written or verbal statement, illustration, or depiction that is calculated to induce sales of retail marijuana, retail marijuana products, marijuana plants, or marijuana seeds, including any written, printed, graphic, digital, electronic, or other material, billboard, sign, or other outdoor display, publication, or radio or television broadcast.

"Authority" means the Virginia Cannabis Control Authority created pursuant to this subtitle.

"Board" means the Board of Directors of the Virginia Cannabis Control Authority.

"Cannabis Control Act" means Subtitle II (§ 4.1-600 et seq.).

"Child-resistant" means, with respect to packaging or a container, (i) specially designed or constructed to be significantly difficult for a typical child under five years of age to open and not to be significantly difficult for a typical adult to open and reseal and (ii) for any product intended for more than a single use or that contains multiple servings, resealable.

"Cultivation" or "cultivate" means the planting, propagation, growing, harvesting, drying, curing, grading, trimming, or other similar processing of marijuana for use or sale. "Cultivation" or "cultivate" does not include manufacturing or testing.

"Edible marijuana product" means a marijuana product intended to be consumed orally, including marijuana intended to be consumed orally or marijuana concentrate intended to be consumed orally.

"Immature plant" means a nonflowering marijuana plant that is no taller than eight inches and no wider than eight inches, is produced from a cutting, clipping, or seedling, and is growing in a container.

"Licensed" means the holding of a valid license granted by the Authority.

"Licensee" means any person to whom a license has been granted by the Authority.

"Manufacturing" or "manufacture" means the production of marijuana products or the blending, infusing, compounding, or other preparation of marijuana and marijuana products, including marijuana extraction or preparation by means of chemical synthesis. "Manufacturing" or "manufacture" does not include cultivation or testing.

"Marijuana" means any part of a plant of the genus Cannabis, whether growing or not, its seeds or resin; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds, its resin, or any extract containing one or more cannabinoids. "Marijuana" does not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber produced from such stalk, or oil or cake made from the seed of such plant, unless such stalks, fiber, oil, or cake is combined with other parts of plants of the genus Cannabis. "Marijuana" does not include (i) industrial hemp, as defined in § 3.2-4112, that is possessed by a person registered pursuant to subsection A of § 3.2-4115 or his agent or (ii) a hemp product, as defined in § 3.2-4112, containing a tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of no greater than 0.3 percent that is derived from industrial hemp, as defined in § 3.2-4112, that is grown, dealt, or processed in compliance with state or federal law.

"Marijuana concentrate" means marijuana that has undergone a process to concentrate one or more active cannabinoids, thereby increasing the product's potency. Resin from granular trichomes from a marijuana plant is a concentrate for purposes of this subtitle.

"Marijuana cultivation facility" means a facility licensed under this subtitle to cultivate, label, and package retail marijuana; to purchase or take possession of marijuana plants and seeds from other marijuana cultivation facilities; to transfer possession of and sell retail marijuana, immature marijuana plants, and marijuana seeds to marijuana wholesalers and retail marijuana stores; to transfer possession of and sell retail marijuana, marijuana plants, and marijuana seeds to other marijuana cultivation facilities; to transfer possession of and sell retail marijuana to marijuana manufacturing facilities; and to sell immature marijuana plants and marijuana seeds to consumers for the purpose of cultivating marijuana at home for personal use.

"Marijuana establishment" means a marijuana cultivation facility, a marijuana testing facility, a marijuana manufacturing facility, a marijuana wholesaler, or a retail marijuana store.

"Marijuana manufacturing facility" means a facility licensed under this subtitle to manufacture, label, and package retail marijuana and retail marijuana products; to purchase or take possession of retail marijuana from a marijuana cultivation facility or another marijuana manufacturing facility; and to transfer possession of and sell retail marijuana and retail marijuana products to marijuana wholesalers, retail marijuana stores, or other marijuana manufacturing facilities.

"Marijuana paraphernalia" means all equipment, products, and materials of any kind that are either designed for use or are intended for use in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing, harvesting, manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing, preparing, strength testing, analyzing, packaging, repackaging, storing, containing, concealing, ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing into the human body marijuana.

"Marijuana products" means (i) products that are composed of marijuana and other ingredients and are intended for use or consumption, ointments, and tinctures or (ii) marijuana concentrate.

"Marijuana testing facility" means a facility licensed under this subtitle to develop, research, or test marijuana, marijuana products, and other substances.

"Marijuana wholesaler" means a facility licensed under this subtitle to purchase or take possession of retail marijuana, retail marijuana products, immature marijuana plants, and marijuana seeds from a marijuana cultivation facility, a marijuana manufacturing facility, or another marijuana wholesaler and to transfer possession and sell or resell retail marijuana, retail marijuana products, immature marijuana plants, and marijuana seeds to a marijuana cultivation facility, marijuana manufacturing facility, retail marijuana store, or another marijuana wholesaler.

"Non-retail marijuana" means marijuana that is not cultivated, manufactured, or sold by a licensed marijuana establishment.

"Non-retail marijuana products" means marijuana products that are not manufactured and sold by a licensed marijuana establishment.

"Place or premises" means the real estate, together with any buildings or other improvements thereon, designated in the application for a license as the place at which the cultivation, manufacture, sale, or testing of retail marijuana or retail marijuana products shall be performed, except that portion of any such building or other improvement actually and exclusively used as a private residence.

"Public place" means any place, building, or conveyance to which the public has, or is permitted to have, access, including restaurants, soda fountains, hotel dining areas, lobbies and corridors of hotels, and any park, place of public resort or amusement, highway, street, lane, or sidewalk adjoining any highway, street, or lane.

"Residence" means any building or part of a building or structure where a person resides, but does not include any part of a building that is not actually and exclusively used as a private residence, nor any part of a hotel or club other than a private guest room thereof.

"Retail marijuana" means marijuana that is cultivated, manufactured, or sold by a licensed marijuana establishment.

"Retail marijuana products" means marijuana products that are manufactured and sold by a licensed marijuana establishment.

"Retail marijuana store" means a facility licensed under this subtitle to purchase or take possession of retail marijuana, retail marijuana products, immature marijuana plants, or marijuana seeds from a marijuana cultivation facility, marijuana manufacturing facility, or marijuana wholesaler and to sell retail marijuana, retail marijuana products, immature marijuana plants, or marijuana seeds to consumers.

"Sale" and "sell" includes soliciting or receiving an order for; keeping, offering, or exposing for sale; peddling, exchanging, or bartering; or delivering otherwise than gratuitously, by any means, retail marijuana or retail marijuana products.

"Special agent" means an employee of the Virginia Cannabis Control Authority whom the Board has designated as a law-enforcement officer pursuant to this subtitle.

"Testing" or "test" means the research and analysis of marijuana, marijuana products, or other substances for contaminants, safety, or potency. "Testing" or "test" does not include cultivation or manufacturing.

§ 4.1-1100. Possession, etc., of marijuana and marijuana products by persons 21 years of age or older lawful; penalties.

A. Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a person 21 years of age or older may lawfully possess on his person or in any public place not more than one ounce of marijuana or an equivalent amount of marijuana product as determined by regulation promulgated by the Board.

B. Any person who possesses on his person or in any public place marijuana or marijuana products in excess of the amounts set forth in subsection A is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $25. The penalty for any violations of this section by an adult shall be prepayable according to the procedures in § 16.1-69.40:2.

C. With the exception of possession by a person in his residence or possession by a licensee in the course of his duties related to such licensee's marijuana establishment, any person who possesses on his person or in any public place (i) more than four ounces but not more than one pound of marijuana or an equivalent amount of marijuana product as determined by regulation promulgated by the Board is guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor and, for a second or subsequent offense, a Class 2 misdemeanor and (ii) more than one pound of marijuana or an equivalent amount of marijuana product as determined by regulation promulgated by the Board is guilty of a felony punishable by a term of imprisonment of not less than one year nor more than 10 years and a fine of not more than $250,000, or both.

D. The provisions of this section shall not apply to members of federal, state, county, city, or town law- enforcement agencies, jail officers, or correctional officers, as defined in § 53.1-1, certified as handlers of dogs trained in the detection of controlled substances when possession of marijuana is necessary for the performance of their duties.

§ 4.1-1101. Home cultivation of marijuana for personal use; penalties.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision c of § 18.2-248.1, a person 21 years of age or older may cultivate up to four marijuana plants for personal use at their place of residence; however, at no point shall a household contain more than four marijuana plants. For purposes of this section, a "household" means those individuals, whether related or not, who live in the same house or other place of residence.

A person may only cultivate marijuana plants pursuant to this section at such person's main place of residence.

A violation of this subsection shall be punishable as follows:

  1. For possession of more than four marijuana plants but no more than 10 marijuana plants, (i) a civil penalty of $250 for a first offense, (ii) a Class 3 misdemeanor for a second offense, and (iii) a Class 2 misdemeanor for a third and any subsequent offense;
  2. For possession of more than 10 but no more than 49 marijuana plants, a Class 1 misdemeanor;
  3. For possession of more than 49 but no more than 100 marijuana plants, a Class 6 felony; and
  4. For possession of more than 100 marijuana plants, a felony punishable by a term of imprisonment of not less than one year nor more than 10 years or a fine of not more than $250,000, or both.

B. A person who cultivates marijuana for personal use pursuant to this section shall:

1. Ensure that no marijuana plant is visible from a public way without the use of aircraft, binoculars, or other optical aids;

2. Take precautions to prevent unauthorized access by persons younger than 21 years of age; and

3. Attach to each marijuana plant a legible tag that includes the person's name, driver's license or identification number, and a notation that the marijuana plant is being grown for personal use as authorized under this section.

Any person who violates this subsection is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $25. The penalty for any violations of this section by an adult shall be prepayable according to the procedures in § 16.1-69.40:2.

C. A person shall not manufacture marijuana concentrate from home-cultivated marijuana. The owner of a property or parcel or tract of land may not intentionally or knowingly allow another person to manufacture marijuana concentrate from home-cultivated marijuana within or on that property or land.

§ 4.1-1101.1. Adult sharing of marijuana.

A. For the purposes of this section, "adult sharing" means transferring marijuana between persons who are 21 years of age or older without remuneration. "Adult sharing" does not include instances in which (i) marijuana is given away contemporaneously with another reciprocal transaction between the same parties; (ii) a gift of marijuana is offered or advertised in conjunction with an offer for the sale of goods or services; or (iii) a gift of marijuana is contingent upon a separate reciprocal transaction for goods or services.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 18.2-248.1, no civil or criminal penalty may be imposed for adult sharing of an amount of marijuana that does not exceed one ounce or of an equivalent amount of marijuana products.

§ 4.1-1105.1. Possession of marijuana or marijuana products unlawful in certain cases; venue; exceptions; penalties; treatment and education programs and services.

A. No person younger than 21 years of age shall consume or possess, or attempt to consume or possess, any marijuana or marijuana products, except by any federal, state, or local law-enforcement officer or his agent when possession of marijuana or marijuana products is necessary in the performance of his duties. Such person may be prosecuted either in the county or city in which the marijuana or marijuana products were possessed or consumed or in the county or city in which the person exhibits evidence of physical indicia of consumption of marijuana or marijuana products.

B. Any person 18 years of age or older who violates subsection A is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $25 and shall be ordered to enter a substance abuse treatment or education program or both, if available, that in the opinion of the court best suits the needs of the accused.

C. Any juvenile who violates subsection A is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $25 and the court shall require the accused to enter a substance abuse treatment or education program or both, if available, that in the opinion of the court best suits the needs of the accused. For purposes of §§ 16.1-266, 16.1-273, 16.1-278.8, 16.1-278.8:01, and 16.1-278.9, the court shall treat the child as delinquent.

D. Any such substance abuse treatment or education program to which a person is ordered pursuant to this section shall be provided by (i) a program licensed by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services or (ii) a program or services made available through a community-based probation services agency established pursuant to Article 9 (§ 9.1-173 et seq.) of Chapter 1 of Title 9.1, if one has been established for the locality. When an offender is ordered to a local community-based probation services agency, the local community-based probation services agency shall be responsible for providing for services or referring the offender to education or treatment services as a condition of probation.

E. Any civil penalties collected pursuant to this section shall be deposited into the Drug Offender Assessment and Treatment Fund established pursuant to § 18.2-251.02.

§ 4.1-1107. Using or consuming marijuana or marijuana products while in a motor vehicle being driven upon a public highway; penalty.

A. For the purposes of this section:

"Open container" means any vessel containing marijuana or marijuana products, except the originally sealed manufacturer's container.

"Passenger area" means the area designed to seat the driver of any motor vehicle, any area within the reach of the driver, including an unlocked glove compartment, and the area designed to seat passengers. "Passenger area" does not include the trunk of any passenger vehicle; the area behind the last upright seat of a passenger van, station wagon, hatchback, sport utility vehicle or any similar vehicle; the living quarters of a motor home; or the passenger area of a motor vehicle designed, maintained, or used primarily for the transportation of persons for compensation, including a bus, taxi, or limousine, while engaged in the transportation of such persons.

B. It is unlawful for any person to use or consume marijuana or marijuana products while driving a motor vehicle upon a public highway of the Commonwealth or while being a passenger in a motor vehicle being driven upon a public highway of the Commonwealth.

C. A judge or jury may make a permissive inference that a person has consumed marijuana or marijuana products in violation of this section if (i) an open container is located within the passenger area of the motor vehicle, (ii) the marijuana or marijuana products in the open container have been at least partially removed and (iii) the appearance, conduct, speech, or other physical characteristic of such person, excluding odor, is consistent with the consumption of marijuana or marijuana products. Such person may be prosecuted either in the county or city in which the marijuana was used or consumed, or in the county or city in which the person exhibits evidence of physical indicia of use or consumption of marijuana.

D. Any person who violates this section is guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor.

§ 4.1-1108. Consuming marijuana or marijuana products, or offering to another, in public place; penalty.

A. No person shall consume marijuana or a marijuana product or offer marijuana or a marijuana product to another, whether accepted or not, at or in any public place.

B. Any person who violates this section is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $25 for a first offense. A person who is convicted under this section of a second offense is subject to a $25 civil penalty and shall be ordered to enter a substance abuse treatment or education program or both, if available, that in the opinion of the court best suits the needs of the accused. A person convicted under this section of a third or subsequent offense is guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor.

§ 4.1-1109. Consuming or possessing marijuana or marijuana products in or on public school grounds; penalty.

A. No person shall possess or consume any marijuana or marijuana product in or upon the grounds of any public elementary or secondary school during school hours or school or student activities.

B. In addition, no person shall consume and no organization shall serve any marijuana or marijuana products in or upon the grounds of any public elementary or secondary school after school hours or school or student activities.

C. Any person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a Class 2 misdemeanor.

§ 4.1-1110. Possessing or consuming marijuana or marijuana products while operating a school bus; penalty.

Any person who possesses or consumes marijuana or marijuana products while operating a school bus and transporting children is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. For the purposes of this section, "school bus" has the same meaning as provided in § 46.2-100.

§ 4.1-1112. Limitation on carrying marijuana or marijuana products in motor vehicle transporting passengers for hire; penalty.

The transportation of marijuana or marijuana products in any motor vehicle that is being used, or is licensed, for the transportation of passengers for hire is prohibited, except when carried in the possession of a passenger who is being transported for compensation at the regular rate and fare charged other passengers.

Any person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

§ 4.1-1120. Persons charged with first offense may be placed on probation; conditions; substance abuse screening, assessment treatment, and education programs or services; drug tests; costs and fees; violations; discharge.

A. Whenever any person who has not previously been convicted of any offense under this subtitle pleads guilty to or enters a plea of not guilty to an offense under this subtitle, the court, upon such plea if the facts found by the court would justify a finding of guilt, without entering a judgment of guilt and with the consent of the accused, may defer further proceedings and place the accused on probation upon terms and conditions.

B. As a term or condition, the court shall require the accused to undergo a substance abuse assessment pursuant to § 19.2-299.2 and enter treatment or an education program or services, or any combination thereof, if available, such as, in the opinion of the court, may be best suited to the needs of the accused based upon consideration of the substance abuse assessment. The program or services may be located in the judicial district in which the charge is brought or in any other judicial district as the court may provide. The services shall be provided by (i) a program licensed by the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, or a similar program that is made available through the Department of Corrections; (ii) a local community-based probation services agency established pursuant to § 9.1-174; or (iii) an alcohol safety action program (ASAP) certified by the Commission on the Virginia Alcohol Safety Action Program (VASAP).

C. The court shall require the person entering such program under the provisions of this section to pay all or part of the costs of the program, including the costs of the screening, assessment, testing, and treatment, based upon the accused's ability to pay, unless the person is determined by the court to be indigent.

D. As a condition of probation, the court shall require the accused (i) to successfully complete treatment or education programs or services, (ii) to remain drug-free and alcohol-free during the period of probation and submit to such tests during that period as may be necessary and appropriate to determine if the accused is drug-free and alcohol-free, (iii) to make reasonable efforts to secure and maintain employment, and (iv) to comply with a plan of up to 24 hours of community service. Such testing shall be conducted by personnel of the supervising probation agency or personnel of any program or agency approved by the supervising probation agency.

E. Upon violation of a term or condition, the court may enter an adjudication of guilt and proceed as otherwise provided. Upon fulfillment of the terms and conditions, the court shall discharge the person and dismiss the proceedings against him. Discharge and dismissal under this section shall be without adjudication of guilt and is a conviction only for the purposes of applying this section in subsequent proceedings.

F. When any juvenile is found to have committed a violation of subsection A, the disposition of the case shall be handled according to the provisions of Article 9 (§ 16.1-278 et seq.) of Chapter 11 of Title 16.1.

§ 4.1-1121. Issuance of summonses for certain offenses; civil penalties.

Any violation under this subtitle that is subject to a civil penalty is a civil offense and shall be charged by summons. A summons for a violation under this subtitle that is subject to a civil penalty may be executed by a law-enforcement officer when such violation is observed by such officer. The summons used by a law-enforcement officer pursuant to this section shall be in a form the same as the uniform summons for motor vehicle law violations as prescribed pursuant to § 46.2-388. Any civil penalties collected pursuant to this subtitle shall be deposited into the Drug Offender Assessment and Treatment Fund established pursuant to § 18.2-251.02.

§ 4.1-1302. Search without warrant; odor of marijuana.

A. No law-enforcement officer, as defined in § 9.1-101, may lawfully stop, search, or seize any person, place, or thing and no search warrant may be issued solely on the basis of the odor of marijuana and no evidence discovered or obtained pursuant to a violation of this subsection, including evidence discovered or obtained with the person's consent, shall be admissible in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding.

B. The provisions of subsection A shall not apply in any airport as defined in § 5.1-1 or if the violation occurs in a commercial motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-341.4.

§ 18.2-248.1. Penalties for sale, gift, distribution or possession with intent to sell, give or distribute marijuana.

Except as authorized in the Drug Control Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.), it is unlawful for any person to sell, give, distribute or possess with intent to sell, give, or distribute marijuana.

(a) Any person who violates this section with respect to:

(1) Not more than one ounce of marijuana is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor;

(2) More than one ounce but not more than five pounds of marijuana is guilty of a Class 5 felony;

(3) More than five pounds of marijuana is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment of not less than five nor more than 30 years.

There shall be a rebuttable presumption that a person who possesses no more than one ounce of marijuana possesses it for personal use.

If such person proves that he gave, distributed, or possessed with intent to give or distribute marijuana only as an accommodation to another individual and not with intent to profit thereby from any consideration received or expected nor to induce the recipient or intended recipient of the marijuana to use or become addicted to or dependent upon such marijuana, he is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

(b) Any person who gives, distributes, or possesses marijuana as an accommodation and not with intent to profit thereby, to an inmate of a state or local correctional facility, as defined in § 53.1-1, or in the custody of an employee thereof is guilty of a Class 4 felony.

(c) Any person who manufactures marijuana, or possesses marijuana with the intent to manufacture such substance, not for his own use is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment of not less than five nor more than 30 years and a fine not to exceed $10,000.

(d) When a person is convicted of a third or subsequent felony offense under this section and it is alleged in the warrant, indictment or information that he has been before convicted of two or more felony offenses under this section or of substantially similar offenses in any other jurisdiction which offenses would be felonies if committed in the Commonwealth, and such prior convictions occurred before the date of the offense alleged in the warrant, indictment, or information, he shall be sentenced to imprisonment for life or for any period not less than five years, five years of which shall be a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment to be served consecutively with any other sentence and he shall be fined not more than $500,000.

§ 19.2-389.3. Marijuana possession; limits on dissemination of criminal history record information; prohibited practices by employers, educational institutions, and state and local governments; penalty.

A. Records relating to the arrest, criminal charge, or conviction of a person for a misdemeanor violation of § 18.2-248.1 or a violation of § 18.2-250.1, including any violation charged under §§ 18.2-248.1 or 18.2-250.1 that was deferred and dismissed pursuant to § 18.2-251, maintained in the Central Criminal Records Exchange shall not be open for public inspection or otherwise disclosed, provided that such records may be disseminated (i) to make the determination as provided in § 18.2-308.2:2 of eligibility to possess or purchase a firearm; (ii) to aid in the preparation of a pretrial investigation report prepared by a local pretrial services agency established pursuant to Article 5 (§ 19.2-152.2 et seq.) of Chapter 9, a pre-sentence or post-sentence investigation report pursuant to § 19.2-299 or in the preparation of the discretionary sentencing guidelines worksheets pursuant to subsection C of § 19.2-298.01; (iii) to aid local community-based probation services agencies established pursuant to the Comprehensive Community Corrections Act for Local-Responsible Offenders (§ 9.1-173 et seq.) with investigating or serving adult local-responsible offenders and all court service units serving juvenile delinquent offenders; (iv) for fingerprint comparison utilizing the fingerprints maintained in the Automated Fingerprint Information System computer; (v) to attorneys for the Commonwealth to secure information incidental to sentencing and to attorneys for the Commonwealth and probation officers to prepare the discretionary sentencing guidelines worksheets pursuant to subsection C of § 19.2-298.01; (vi) to any full-time or part-time employee of the State Police, a police department, or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof, and who is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime and the enforcement of the penal, traffic, or highway laws of the Commonwealth, for purposes of the administration of criminal justice as defined in § 9.1-101; (vii) to the Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission for research purposes; (viii) to any full-time or part-time employee of the State Police or a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof for the purpose of screening any person for full-time or part-time employment with the State Police or a police department or sheriff's office that is a part of or administered by the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof; (ix) to the State Health Commissioner or his designee for the purpose of screening any person who applies to be a volunteer with or an employee of an emergency medical services agency as provided in § 32.1-111.5; (x) to any full-time or part-time employee of the Department of Forensic Science for the purpose of screening any person for full-time or part-time employment with the Department of Forensic Science; (xi) to the chief law-enforcement officer of a locality, or his designee who shall be an individual employed as a public safety official of the locality, that has adopted an ordinance in accordance with §§ 15.2-1503.1 and 19.2-389 for the purpose of screening any person who applies to be a volunteer with or an employee of an emergency medical services agency as provided in § 32.1-111.5; and (xii) to any full-time or part-time employee of the Department of Motor Vehicles, any employer as defined in § 46.2-341.4, or any medical examiner as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 390.5 for the purpose of complying with the regulations of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

B. An employer or educational institution shall not, in any application, interview, or otherwise, require an applicant for employment or admission to disclose information concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction against him when the record relating to such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction is not open for public inspection pursuant to subsection A. An applicant need not, in answer to any question concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction, include a reference to or information concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction when the record relating to such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction is not open for public inspection pursuant to subsection A.

C. Agencies, officials, and employees of the state and local governments shall not, in any application, interview, or otherwise, require an applicant for a license, permit, registration, or governmental service to disclose information concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction against him when the record relating to such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction is not open for public inspection pursuant to subsection A. An applicant need not, in answer to any question concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction, include a reference to or information concerning any arrest, criminal charge, or conviction when the record relating to such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction is not open for public inspection pursuant to subsection A. Such an application may not be denied solely because of the applicant's refusal to disclose information concerning any such arrest, criminal charge, or conviction.

D. A person who willfully violates subsection B or C is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor for each violation.

Misdemeanor Possession With Intent to Distribute records were sealed from public view in State Police’s Database July 1, 2021

  • Not sealed in court systems or 3rd party systems
  • Automatic expungement will occur in 2025 after agencies make system updates

  

§ 46.2-341.20:7. Possession of marijuana in commercial motor vehicle unlawful; civil penalty.

A. It is unlawful for any person to knowingly or intentionally possess marijuana in a commercial motor vehicle as defined in § 46.2-341.4. The attorney for the Commonwealth or the county, city, or town attorney may prosecute such a case.

Upon the prosecution of a person for a violation of this section, ownership or occupancy of the vehicle in which marijuana was found shall not create a presumption that such person either knowingly or intentionally possessed such marijuana.

Any person who violates this section is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $25. A violation of this section is a civil offence. Any civil penalties collected pursuant to this section shall be deposited into the Drug Offender Assessment and Treatment Fund established pursuant to § 18.2-251.02. Violations of this section by an adult shall be prepayable according to the procedures in § 16.1-69.40:2.

B. Any violation of this section shall be charged by summons. A summons for a violation of this section may be executed by a law-enforcement officer when such violation is observed by such officer. The summons used by a law-enforcement officer pursuant to this section shall be in form the same as the uniform summons for motor vehicle law violations as prescribed pursuant to § 46.2-388. No court costs shall be assessed for violations of this section. A person's criminal history record information as defined in § 9.1-101 shall not include records of any charges or judgments for a violation of this section, and records of such charges or judgments shall not be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange; however, such violation shall be reported to the Department of Motor Vehicles and shall be included on such individual's driving record.

C. The procedure for appeal and trial of any violation of this section shall be the same as provided by law for misdemeanors; if requested by either party on appeal to the circuit court, trial by jury shall be as provided in Article 4 (§ 19.2-260 et seq.) of Chapter 15 of Title 19.2, and the Commonwealth shall be required to prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt.

D. The provisions of this section shall not apply to members of state, federal, county, city, or town law-enforcement agencies, jail officers, or correctional officers, as defined in § 53.1-1, certified as handlers of dogs trained in the detection of controlled substances when possession of marijuana is necessary for the performance of their duties.

E. The provisions of this section involving marijuana in the form of cannabis products as that term is defined in § 54.1-3408.3 shall not apply to any person who possesses such cannabis product pursuant to a valid written certification issued by a practitioner in the course of his professional practice pursuant to § 54.1-3408.3 for treatment or to alleviate the symptoms of (i) the person's diagnosed condition or disease, (ii) if such person is the parent or guardian of a minor or of an incapacitated adult as defined in § 18.2-369, such minor's or incapacitated adult's diagnosed condition or disease, or (iii) if such person has been designated as a registered agent pursuant to § 54.1-3408.3, the diagnosed condition or disease of his principal or, if the principal is the parent or legal guardian of a minor or of an incapacitated adult as defined in § 18.2-369, such minor's or incapacitated adult's diagnosed condition or disease.

  

Code Sections Related to Cannabis Legalization

    

Article 30. Cannabis Equity Reinvestment Board

§ 2.2-2499.5 Cannabis Equity Reinvestment Board; purpose; membership; quorum; meetings
  • Board can begin developing the programs that will be used to distribute the Fund, e.g. scholarship and grant criteria.
§ 2.2-2499.6 Compensation; expenses
§ 2.2-2499.7 Powers and duties of the Board
§ 2.2-2499.8 Cannabis Equity Reinvestment Fund
   

§4.1-600-28 Cannabis Control Authority.

  • CEO & Board appointed
  • Can begin work of standing-up authority (hiring staff; signing leases; etc.)
§ 4.1-600 Definitions
§ 4.1-601 Virginia Cannabis Control Authority created; public purpose
§ 4.1-602 Virginia Cannabis Control Authority; composition
§ 4.1-603 Cannabis Public Health Advisory Council; purpose; membership; quorum; meetings; compensation and expenses; duties
§ 4.1-604 Powers and duties of the Board
§ 4.1-605 Additional powers; mediation; alternative dispute resolution; confidentiality
§ 4.1-606 Regulations of the Board
§ 4.1-607 Board membership; terms; compensation
§ 4.1-608 Appointment, salary, and powers of Chief Executive Officer; appointment of confidential assistant to the Chief Executive Officer
§ 4.1-609 Background investigations of Board members and Chief Executive Officer
§ 4.1-610 Financial interests of Board, employees, and family members prohibited
§ 4.1-611 Seed-to-sale tracking system
§ 4.1-612 Moneys of Authority
§ 4.1-613 Forms of accounts and records; audit; annual report
§ 4.1-614 Disposition of moneys collected by the Board
§ 4.1-615 Leases and purchases of property by the Board
§ 4.1-616 Exemptions from taxes or assessments
§ 4.1-617 Exemption of Authority from personnel and procurement procedures; information systems; etc.
§ 4.1-618 Reversion to the Commonwealth
§ 4.1-619 Certified mail; subsequent mail or notices may be sent by regular mail; electronic communications as alternative to regular mail; limitation
§ 4.1-620 Reports and accounting systems of Board; auditing books and records
§ 4.1-621 Certain information not to be made public
§ 4.1-622 Criminal history records check required on certain employees; reimbursement of costs
§ 4.1-623 Employees of the Authority
§ 4.1-624 Police power of members, agents, and employees of Board
§ 4.1-625 Liability of Board members; suits by and against Board
§ 4.1-626 Counsel for members, agents, and employees of Board
§ 4.1-627 Hearings; representation by counsel
§ 4.1-628 Hearings; allowances to witnesses
§ 4.1-629 Reserved
     

Chapter 11. Possession of Retail Marijuana and Retail Marijuana Products; Prohibited Practices Generally

§ 4.1-1100 Possession, etc., of marijuana and marijuana products by persons 21 years of age or older lawful; penalties
§ 4.1-1101 Home cultivation of marijuana for personal use; penalties
§ 4.1-1101.1 Adult sharing of marijuana
§ 4.1-1102 Reserved
§ 4.1-1105.1 Possession of marijuana or marijuana products unlawful in certain cases; venue; exceptions; penalties; treatment and education programs and services
§ 4.1-1106 Reserved
§ 4.1-1107 Using or consuming marijuana or marijuana products while in a motor vehicle being driven upon a public highway; penalty
§ 4.1-1108 Consuming marijuana or marijuana products, or offering to another, in public place; penalty
§ 4.1-1109 Consuming or possessing marijuana or marijuana products in or on public school grounds; penalty
§ 4.1-1110 Possessing or consuming marijuana or marijuana products while operating a school bus; penalty
§ 4.1-1111 Reserved
§ 4.1-1112 Limitation on carrying marijuana or marijuana products in motor vehicle transporting passengers for hire; penalty
§ 4.1-1113 Reserved
§ 4.1-1120 Persons charged with first offense may be placed on probation; conditions; substance abuse screening, assessment treatment, and education programs or services; drug tests; costs and fees; violations; discharge
§ 4.1-1121 Issuance of summonses for certain offenses; civil penalties
  

Chapter 15. Virginia Cannabis Equity Business Loan Program and Fund

§ 4.1-1500 Definitions
§ 4.1-1501 Virginia Cannabis Equity Business Loan Fund
§ 4.1-1502 Selection of CDFI; Program requirements; guidelines for management of the Fund
§ 4.1-1503 Annual reports
  

Enactment Clause 10; 22 Cannabis Oversight Commission.

  • Composed of 10 General Assembly members to oversee the CCA startup process
  • Lasts until Jan. 1, 2024

 

Cannabis Legalization Enactment Clauses Effective November 1, 2021

   

Enactment Clause 17 Executive Work Group

  • Develop a plan for collecting marijuana-related data regarding, including hospital visits; impaired driving; use and treatment rates; disproportionate impacts of legalization

 

Enactment Clause 19

  • Secretary of Education develops reports on marijuana-related curriculum and resources for teachers and colleges

 

Enactment Clause 24

  • Office of the Executive Secretary reports on number of civil offenses committed and civil penalties imposed for violations of §18.2-250.1

 

Enactment Clause 25

  • JLARC reports on comparison of SB1406/HB2312 to its recommendations from 2020 Report on Marijuana Legalization

 

Expungement Code Sections Effective on or before July 1, 2025

 

§ 19.2-392.2:1. Former marijuana offenses; automatic expungement.

  • Automatic Expungements of Records of Simple Possession (§ 18.2-250.1) and Misdemeanor Possession with Intent to Distribute (§ 18.2-248.1)

 

§ 19.2-392.2:2. Former marijuana offenses; petition for expungement.

  • Petition-based Expungement of Records for Felony Possession with Intent to Distribute (§ 18.2-248.1) and Paraphernalia (§ 18.2-265.3)

 

Criminal Code Sections for Marijuana

 

§ 18.2-248.1. Penalties for sale, gift, distribution or possession with intent to sell, give or distribute marijuana.

Except as authorized in the Drug Control Act (§ 54.1-3400 et seq.), it is unlawful for any person to sell, give, distribute or possess with intent to sell, give, or distribute marijuana.

(a) Any person who violates this section with respect to:

(1) Not more than one ounce of marijuana is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor;

(2) More than one ounce but not more than five pounds of marijuana is guilty of a Class 5 felony;

(3) More than five pounds of marijuana is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment of not less than five nor more than 30 years.

There shall be a rebuttable presumption that a person who possesses no more than one ounce of marijuana possesses it for personal use.

If such person proves that he gave, distributed, or possessed with intent to give or distribute marijuana only as an accommodation to another individual and not with intent to profit thereby from any consideration received or expected nor to induce the recipient or intended recipient of the marijuana to use or become addicted to or dependent upon such marijuana, he is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

(b) Any person who gives, distributes, or possesses marijuana as an accommodation and not with intent to profit thereby, to an inmate of a state or local correctional facility, as defined in § 53.1-1, or in the custody of an employee thereof is guilty of a Class 4 felony.

(c) Any person who manufactures marijuana, or possesses marijuana with the intent to manufacture such substance, not for his own use is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment of not less than five nor more than 30 years and a fine not to exceed $10,000.

(d) When a person is convicted of a third or subsequent felony offense under this section and it is alleged in the warrant, indictment or information that he has been before convicted of two or more felony offenses under this section or of substantially similar offenses in any other jurisdiction which offenses would be felonies if committed in the Commonwealth, and such prior convictions occurred before the date of the offense alleged in the warrant, indictment, or information, he shall be sentenced to imprisonment for life or for any period not less than five years, five years of which shall be a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment to be served consecutively with any other sentence and he shall be fined not more than $500,000.

§ 18.2-265.1. Definition.

As used in this article, the term "drug paraphernalia" means all equipment, products, and materials of any kind which are either designed for use or which are intended by the person charged with violating § 18.2-265.3 for use in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing, harvesting, manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing, preparing, strength testing, analyzing, packaging, repackaging, storing, containing, concealing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing into the human body marijuana or a controlled substance. It includes, but is not limited to:

1. Kits intended for use or designed for use in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing or harvesting of marijuana or any species of plant which is a controlled substance or from which a controlled substance can be derived;

2. Kits intended for use or designed for use in manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing, or preparing marijuana or controlled substances;

3. Isomerization devices intended for use or designed for use in increasing the potency of marijuana or any species of plant which is a controlled substance;

4. Testing equipment intended for use or designed for use in identifying or in analyzing the strength or effectiveness of marijuana or controlled substances, other than narcotic testing products used to determine whether a controlled substance contains fentanyl or a fentanyl analog;

5. Scales and balances intended for use or designed for use in weighing or measuring marijuana or controlled substances;

6. Diluents and adulterants, such as quinine hydrochloride, mannitol, or mannite, intended for use or designed for use in cutting controlled substances;

7. Separation gins and sifters intended for use or designed for use in removing twigs and seeds from, or in otherwise cleaning or refining, marijuana;

8. Blenders, bowls, containers, spoons, and mixing devices intended for use or designed for use in compounding controlled substances;

9. Capsules, balloons, envelopes, and other containers intended for use or designed for use in packaging small quantities of marijuana or controlled substances;

10. Containers and other objects intended for use or designed for use in storing or concealing marijuana or controlled substances;

11. Hypodermic syringes, needles, and other objects intended for use or designed for use in parenterally injecting controlled substances into the human body;

12. Objects intended for use or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling, or otherwise introducing marijuana, cocaine, hashish, or hashish oil into the human body, such as:

a. Metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, or ceramic pipes with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads, or punctured metal bowls;

b. Water pipes;

c. Carburetion tubes and devices;

d. Smoking and carburetion masks;

e. Roach clips, meaning objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to be held in the hand;

f. Miniature cocaine spoons, and cocaine vials;

g. Chamber pipes;

h. Carburetor pipes;

i. Electric pipes;

j. Air-driven pipes;

k. Chillums;

l. Bongs;

m. Ice pipes or chillers.

§ 18.2-265.2. Evidence to be considered in cases under this article.

In determining whether an object is drug paraphernalia, the court may consider, in addition to all other relevant evidence, the following:

1. Constitutionally admissible statements by the accused concerning the use of the object;

2. The proximity of the object to marijuana or controlled substances, which proximity is actually known to the accused;

3. Instructions, oral or written, provided with the object concerning its use;

4. Descriptive materials accompanying the object which explain or depict its use;

5. National and local advertising within the actual knowledge of the accused concerning its use;

6. The manner in which the object is displayed for sale;

7. Whether the accused is a legitimate supplier of like or related items to the community, such as a licensed distributor or dealer of tobacco products;

8. Evidence of the ratio of sales of the objects defined in § 18.2-265.1 to the total sales of the business enterprise;

9. The existence and scope of legitimate uses for the object in the community;

10. Expert testimony concerning its use or the purpose for which it was designed;

11. Relevant evidence of the intent of the accused to deliver it to persons who he knows, or should reasonably know, intend to use the object with an illegal drug. The innocence of an owner, or of anyone in control of the object, as to a direct violation of this article shall not prevent a finding that the object is intended for use or designed for use as drug paraphernalia.

§ 18.2-265.3. Penalties for sale, etc., of drug paraphernalia.

A. Any person who sells or possesses with intent to sell drug paraphernalia, knowing, or under circumstances where one reasonably should know, that it is either designed for use or intended by such person for use to illegally plant, propagate, cultivate, grow, harvest, manufacture, compound, convert, produce, process, prepare, test, analyze, pack, repack, store, contain, conceal, inject, ingest, inhale, or otherwise introduce into the human body marijuana or a controlled substance, shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

B. Any person eighteen years of age or older who violates subsection A hereof by selling drug paraphernalia to a minor who is at least three years junior to the accused in age shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony.

C. Any person eighteen years of age or older who distributes drug paraphernalia to a minor shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

§ 18.2-265.5. Advertisement of drug paraphernalia prohibited; penalty.

It shall be unlawful for any person to place in any newspaper, magazine, handbill or other publication any advertisement, knowing or under circumstances where one reasonably should know, that the purpose of the advertisement, in whole or in part, is to promote the sale of objects designed or intended by such person for use as drug paraphernalia. A violation of this section shall be punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.